Substitutions

Missing an ingredient? Browse through these substitutions!

A

Acorn Squash – butternut squash or pumpkin

Active Dry Yeast (1 1/4-ounce package) – 1 .06-ounce cake compressed yeast or 1 scant tablespoon granulated dry yeast

Agar/Agar – gelatin

Allspice (1 teaspoon) – 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves (for baking) or 1 teaspoon nutmeg (for baking) or 1 teaspoon ground black pepper (for cooking)

Anise Seed – Fennel seed or caraway seed (use more)

Apples, Chopped (1 cup) – 1 cup chopped firm pears plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice

Apple Cider – use 100% apple juice

Arrowroot (1 tablespoon) – 2 1/4 teaspoons cornstarch or 1 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Arugula – Endive or dandelion greens

B

Baking Powder (1 teaspoon) – 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda, or 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus buttermilk as a substitute for 1/2 cup of the liquid called for in recipe

Basil, Dried – Dried tarragon, thyme or oregano

Basil, Fresh – Basil dried , half the quantity of fresh.

Bay Leaf (1) – 1/4 teaspoon thyme

Black Pepper, for Cooking – Allspice plus a dash of salt

Bok Choy or Chinese Cabbage – Savory or green cabbage

Brandy – Cognac or rum

Bread Crumbs, Dry (1 cup) – 3/4 cup cracker crumbs, 3 slices dried bread, crumbled, or 1 cup rolled oats

Broth, Beef or Chicken (1 cup) – 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water, or 1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

Bulgur – Cracked wheat, brown rice, couscous or millet

Butter (1 cup) – 1 cup margarine; or 7/8 cup shortening, lard, or vegetable oil (it is not recommended to use oil in baked products); or 4/5 cup strained bacon fat; or 3/4 cup strained chicken fat

Buttermilk, for Baking (1 cup) – 1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice (or vinegar); 1 cup milk plus 3/4 teaspoon cream of tartar; or 1 cup plain yogurt

C

Capers – Chopped green olives

Caraway Seed – Fennel seed or cumin seed

Cardamom, Ground – Ground cinnamon or mace

Cayenne Pepper – Ground hot red pepper or chili powder

Celery Seed – Dill seed

Chervil, Dried – Dried tarragon or parsley

Chili Sauce (1 cup) – 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup brown sugar plus 2 tablespoons vinegar plus 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon plus a dash ground cloves and a dash allspice

Chive, Fresh, Chopped – Chopped green onion, or leek

Chocolate, for Cooking or Baking – Unsweetened (1 ounce): 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter plus 2 tablespoons water; or 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water
Semisweet (1 ounce): 1/2 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon granulated sugar
Semisweet (6 ounces chocolate chips): 1/2 cup and 1 tablespoon unsweetened cocoa plus 1/4 cup and 3 tablespoons granulated sugar plus 3 tablespoons butter

Cilantro, Fresh, Chopped (1 tablespoon) – 3 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley plus 1/4 teaspoon lemon juice, or 2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley plus 1 teaspoon chopped fresh mint

Cloves, Ground – Ground allspice, cinnamon or nutmeg

Cognac – Brandy or whiskey

Coriander Seed, Ground – Ground caraway plus cumin or allspice with a pinch of lemon zest

Corn Syrup, Dark (1 cup) – 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup light molasses, or 1 1/4 cups packed brown sugar plus 1/4 cup water

Corn Syrup, Light (1 cup) – 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup water

Cornstarch, for Thickening (1 tablespoon) – 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 2 tablespoons granulated tapioca

Couscous – Bulgur, quinoa, kasha, millet, orzo or rice

Cracker Crumbs (3/4 cup) – 1 cup dry bread crumbs

Cream, for Cooking or Baking (1 cup) – Half and Half: 1 1/2 tablespoons melted butter plus enough whole milk to equal 1 cup, or 1/2 cup light cream plus 1/2 cup whole milk
Light Cream: 3 tablespoons melted butter plus enough whole milk to equal 1 cup
Heavy Whipping Cream: 1/3 cup melted butter plus 3/4 cup whole milk (not to be used for whipping)

Cream Cheese (1 cup) – 1/2 cup cottage cheese plus 1/2 cup cream

Cream of Tartar (1/2 teaspoon) – 1 1/2 teaspoons lemon juice

Cream, Whipped – Chill a 13-ounce can evaporated milk for 12 hours, add 1 tablespoon lemon juice and whip until stiff

Creme Fraiche (1 cup) – 1 cup sour cream in a recipe, or 1/2 cup sour cream plus 1/2 cup heavy cream for a sauce

Cumin Seed (1 teaspoon) – 1/3 teaspoon anise seed plus 2/3 teaspoon caraway seed, or 1 teaspoon fennel seed

Currants, Dried (1 cup) – Finely chopped raisins, soft prunes or dates

D

Dates – Raisins, figs or prunes

Dill Seed – Caraway seed or celery seed

E

Edible Flowers, for Garnish and in Salads – Blue borage, chive blossoms, marigolds, nasturtiums, pansies, roses or violets (purchase from specialty produce markets or supermarkets that carry gourmet produce)

Eggs (1) – 2 tablespoons water plus 2 tablespoons flour plus 1/2 tablespoon vegetable shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon baking powder

Evaporated Milk – Light cream or half and half

F

Fennel Seed – Anise seed or caraway seed

Feta Cheese – Ricotta cheese “salata” (aged and salted)

Flour, for Thickening (2 tablespoons) – 1 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch; or 2 tablespoons quick-cooking tapioca

Flour, Whole Wheat (1 cup) – 1 cup graham flour or 2 tablespoons wheat germ plus enough white flour to make 1 cup

Flowers (see Edible Flowers)

G

Garlic, Minced (1 clove) – 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

Gelatin, Flavored (1 tablespoon) – 1 tablespoon plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice

Ginger, Fresh, Grated (1 tablespoon) – 1 teaspoon powdered ginger plus 1/4 teaspoon white pepper plus 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice

Ginger, Powdered (1 tablespoon) – 1 teaspoon mace plus 1 teaspoon lemon peel

H

Herbs, Fresh (1 tablespoon) – 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon dried

Honey, for Baking (1 cup) – 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup more liquid than called for in recipe; or 1 cup corn syrup, maple syrup or molasses, depending on desired flavor

I
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

J

Jicama – Water chestnuts

K
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

L

Lemon Juice (1 teaspoon) – 1/2 teaspoon vinegar

Lemon Rind, Grated (1 teaspoon) – 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Lemongrass, Fresh, Minced – Grated lemon zest

M

Mace, Ground – Ground allspice, cloves or nutmeg

Maple Syrup (2 cups) – 2 cups sugar plus 1 cup water; bring to a clear boil, remove from heat and add 1/2 teaspoon maple flavoring

Marjoram, Dried – Dried thyme or savory

Mayonnaise, for Salads and Salad Dressings (1 cup) – 1 cup sour cream; or 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender; or 1/2 cup yogurt plus 1/2 cup mayonnaise

Milk (1 cup) – Nonfat: 1/3 cup dry nonfat milk plus 3/4 cup water
Sour: 1 tablespoon lemon juice (or white vinegar) plus milk to equal 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes)
Whole: 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water, or 1 cup nonfat milk plus 2 tablespoons melted unsalted butter or margarine

Molasses – Honey

N

Nutmeg, Ground – Ground cinnamon, ginger or mace

Nuts, for Baking – Bran buds or other cereal nuggets

O

Oil, for Sauteing – Melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening or lard

Onion Powder (1 tablespoon) – 4 tablespoons chopped fresh onion

Orange (1 medium) – 1/3 to 1/2 cup orange juice or 2 to 3 tablespoons grated orange peel

Oregano, Dried – Dried marjoram, rosemary or thyme

P

Parsley, Fresh – Fresh chervil or tarragon

Pimiento, Chopped (2 tablespoons) – 1 tablespoon dried red bell pepper; or 3 tablespoons chopped fresh red bell pepper

Pine Nuts – Blanched slivered almonds or chopped walnuts

Polenta – Cornmeal or grits

Poultry Seasoning (1 teaspoon) – 1/2 teaspoon ground sage plus a blend (1/8 teaspoon each) of any of the following: thyme, marjoram, savory, black pepper and rosemary

Prosciutto -Country ham

Pumpkin Pie Spice (1 teaspoon) – 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ginger plus 1/8 teaspoon allspice plus 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg

Q
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

R

Raisins – Currants, soft prunes or dates

Red Pepper, Ground – Cayenne pepper or chili powder

S

Saffron (1/8 teaspoon) – 1 teaspoon dried yellow marigold petals, or 1 teaspoon safflower herb, or 1/2 to 1 teaspoon turmeric

Savory, Dried – Dried thyme, marjoram or sage

Shallots, Chopped – Chopped scallions (use more), leeks, or standard onions (use less)

Shortening, for Baking – Butter or stick margarine

Sour Cream (1 cup) – 1 cup plain whole-milk yogurt; or 3/4 cup sour milk (or buttermilk or low-fat plain yogurt) plus 1/4 cup melted butter; or 1 tablespoon lemon juice (or white vinegar) plus evaporated whole milk to equal 1 cup

Soy Sauce – Teriyaki sauce

Sugar, for Baking or Cooking – Confectioners’ or Powdered (1 3/4 cups): 1 cup white sugar
Granulated White (1 cup) : 1 cup packed brown sugar or 1 3/4 cups confectioners’ sugar
Light Brown (1 cup): 1/2 cup dark brown sugar plus 1/2 cup white sugar, or 1 cup white sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses

T

Tahini (1 tablespoon) – 1 tablespoon finely ground sesame seeds, or 1 tablespoon unsalted sunflower seeds (or blanched almonds) ground with 1 teaspoon vegetable oil

Tarragon, Dried – Anise seed (use less), dried chervil (use more) or a dash of fennel seed

Thyme, Dried – Dried marjoram, oregano or savory

Tomatillos – Fresh green tomatoes plus a little lemon juice

Tomato Sauce (1 cup) – 6 tablespoons tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water

Turmeric – Powdered mustard or curry powder

U
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

V

Vanilla Extract, for Baking – Almond extract or other extracts

Vinegar – Lemon juice (in cooking and salads), grapefruit juice (in salads) or wine (in marinades)

W
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

X
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

Y

Yogurt – Buttermilk or sour cream

Z
Sorry, there are no entries for this letter. If you would like to suggest an entry, please leave a comment.

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